Use of Daphnia test for assessing the acute toxicity of effluents from a textile industry in Marrakech (Morocco)

 

L. Gebrati1, L. Loukili idrissi2 A. Mouabad3, A. Nejmeddine2*

1 Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie, Ecotoxicologie & Assainissement, Université Cadi Ayyad,

Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Marocco.

 2 Présidence de l’Université Hassan 1er, Complexe Universitaire

Km 3 Route de Casablanca B.P 539 Settat, Morocco

3 Laboratoire Aliments, Environnement et Santé. Equipe Biosurveillance et Biotechnologie Microbienne de l’Environnement. Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Maroc

* Corresponding author: E-mail:  nejmeddine@ucam.ac.ma; nejmeddine@uh1.ac.ma

Received: 26 September 2010; revised version accepted: 03 March 2011

 

Abstract

    The industry is increasingly confronted with problems of emissions control of toxic substances into the environment, particularly in the form of liquid effluents.

     In Morocco, the industrial fabric is composed of 6070 units of which 31% are textile industries. These units consume in their production processes significant quantities of dye and chemical compounds. The effluent is usually discharged without any treatment.

     The main objective of this work is to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from textile industries by determining the concentration of IC50 inhibition of wastewater generated by various processes of dyeing.

     The aim is to distinguish between the toxicity due to dyes and those caused by other chemicals.

     The 24 hour Daphnia test using the water flea Daphnia magna was chosen as the tool for the determination of this toxicity. The results show that the raw effluent of this industry is very toxic (IC50-24h = 3.8%). The discharges generated by the dyeing processes are extremely toxic, which suggests that they are responsible for the largest part of the overall toxicity of the textile effluents.

     These results provide information on the potential ecotoxicological risks caused by the raw effluent, discharged into the receiving environments and the need for treatment to reduce their harmful impact on the same.

 

Keywords: Textile industry; Toxicity; Wastewater; Daphnia Test.

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