EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF URINARY STONES
C. Tcheka1,5, A. Moubarik2, A. Outzourhit3, M. Mbarki1*, B. Loura Benguellah4,
J. Ketcha Mbadcam5, A. Amhoud1, O. Abdelaoui1, M. Ait Lamqadem6, A. Lamiri7
1 Team of Complex Chemical Systems, Faculty of Science and Techniques,
2 MAScIR-NANOTECH, ENSET, Avenue de l'Armée Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat, Morocco.
3 Laboratoire de Physique du Solide et des Couches Minces- Université Cadi Ayyad- Marrakech- Morocco
4 Department of Textile Engineering, Industry of Clothing and Leather, Higher
5 Laboratory of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Science,
6 Urology service,
7Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Settat Faculty of Science and Techniques,
* Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 31 May 2011; revised version accepted: 24 August 2011
Background: Urinary stone is the symptom of cristallogene pathology of urinary disequilibrium whose causes are multiple. Techniques that are used and efficient have to be used for their analysis, so as to provide exact and complete information of its morphology, chemical composition and its etiology for a better treatment of the lithiasic patients.
Aims: The aims of this work was to use three methods in order to explore urinary stones; two microscopic (Binocular Stereoscopic Microscopy coupled with Optical Polarizing Light Microscopy (BSM-OPLM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)) and one spectroscopic (Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR)) used for the epidemiological exploration of 89 urinary stones collected in Tadla-Azilal region ( Beni Mellal - Morocco) and to value the OPLM as a routine technique in the analysis of these stones.
Results: 94.4 % of the urinary stones have been localized in the kidney and 5.6 % in the bladder. A net masculine predominance has been observed in the prevalent cases with a man/woman ratio of 1.22. The three methods have revealed the presence of calcium oxalate as the majority component, in 68.5 % of most cases, followed by phosphates in 21.3 % and purines in 6.8 %. Whewellite, a crystalline calcium oxalate monohydrate, (CaC2O4·H2O), was also identified as a majority species, in 67.4 %, followed by carbapatite stones in 21.3 %. Ammonium acidic urate and struvite were also present respectively in 5.6 and 4.5 %. These results were correlated at 98.9 % between SEM and FTIR, at 94.5 % between BSM-OPLM and FT-IRS and at 92.2 % between BSM-OPLM and SEM
Conclusions: These results have shown that a good correlation between the three methods, especially in the coupling of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry and the Stereomicroscopy-Optical Polarizing Light Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. The BSM-OPLM is important for the study of structural information (color, morphology, texture, crystal forms, etc.) whereas, the FTIR gives better the chemical composition. OPLM can be used well as routine material in the analysis of renal stones for a rapid first diagnostic, which is practical and less expensive.
Keywords: Urinary stone; Calcium oxalate; Calcium phosphate; Struvite; BSM-OPLM; SEM; FTIR.